Global regulatory systems operating in Bacilysin biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;20(3):144-55. doi: 10.1159/000328639. Epub 2011 Jun 28.


In Bacillus subtilis, bacilysin is a nonribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic composed of L-alanine and L-anticapsin. The biosynthesis of bacilysin depends on the bacABCDEywfG operon (bac operon)and the adjacent ywfH gene. To elucidate the effects of global regulatory genes on the expression of bac operon, we used the combination of lacZ fusion analysis and the gel mobility shift assays. The cell density-dependent transition state induction of the bac operon was clearly shown. The basal expression level of the bac operon as well as transition state induction of bac is directly ComA dependent. Three Phr peptides, PhrC, PhrF and PhrK, are required for full-level expression of ComA-dependent bac operon expression, but the most important role seemed to be played by PhrC in stimulating bac expression through a RapC-independent manner. Spo0A is another positive regulator which participates in the transition state induction of bac both directly by interacting with the bac promoter and indirectly by repressing abrB expression. AbrB and CodY proteins do not only directly repress the bac promoter, but they also mutually stimulate the transition state induction of bac indirectly, most likely by antagonizing their repressive effects without preventing each other's binding since both proteins can bind to the bac promoter simultaneously.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alanine / analogs & derivatives
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / biosynthesis
  • Bacillus subtilis / genetics*
  • Bacillus subtilis / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Bacteriocins / biosynthesis
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Dipeptides / biosynthesis
  • Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Lac Operon / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Quorum Sensing
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • AbrB protein, Bacillus subtilis
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacteriocins
  • ComA protein, Bacteria
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dipeptides
  • PhrC protein, Bacillus subtilis
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Spo0A protein, Bacillus subtilis
  • Transcription Factors
  • anticapsin
  • bacilysin
  • Alanine