Influenza is a common respiratory disease in adults, including those infected with HIV. In the spring of 2009, a pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) emerged. In this article, we review the existing literature regarding pH1N1 virus infection in HIV-infected adults, which suggests that susceptibility to pH1N1 virus infection and severity of influenza illness are likely not increased in HIV-infected adults without advanced immunosuppression or comorbid conditions. The risk of influenza-related complications, however, may be increased in those with advanced immunosuppression or high-risk comorbid conditions. Prevention and treatment of high-risk comorbid conditions and annual influenza vaccination should continue to be part of HIV clinical care to help prevent influenza illness and complications. Additional information about pH1N1 vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in HIV-infected patients would be useful to guide strategies to prevent influenza virus infection in this population.