Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Linn) Extract Rich in Eugenol and Eugenol Derivatives Shows Bone-Preserving Efficacy

Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(6):500-9. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.511216. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Abstract

This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p < 0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p < 0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p < 0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p < 0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p < 0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p < 0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p < 0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p < 0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p < 0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p < 0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis.

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / blood
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / blood
  • Animals
  • Bone Density / drug effects
  • Calcium / deficiency
  • Calcium / urine
  • Clove Oil / pharmacology
  • Clove Oil / therapeutic use*
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Eugenol / analogs & derivatives
  • Eugenol / pharmacology
  • Eugenol / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Isoenzymes / blood
  • Osteoporosis / prevention & control*
  • Ovariectomy
  • Phosphates / urine
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • Tensile Strength / drug effects
  • Tibia / drug effects

Substances

  • Clove Oil
  • Isoenzymes
  • Phosphates
  • Eugenol
  • Creatinine
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • Calcium