Twelve tips for teaching expertise in clinical reasoning

Med Teach. 2011;33(11):887-92. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.558142. Epub 2011 Jun 28.


Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most critical skills to teach to medical learners, yet clinician educators rarely receive adequate training on how to teach this topic.

Aims: To enhance clinician educators' ability to teach clinical reasoning.

Methods: I conducted a review of cognitive, medical decision making, and expertise theory literature to develop practical tips that could be applied to typical teaching encounters.

Results: Through the literature review, twelve tips were designed to provide a blueprint for teaching clinical reasoning on the wards or in the clinics.

Conclusions: Teaching clinical reasoning is important and feasible. Teachers who explicitly teach problem solving and decision making may help learners to improve their diagnostic accuracy and treatment choices.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Competence*
  • Education, Medical
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Teaching / methods*
  • Thinking*