Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the leaf extract of Rosa canina L. against experimental diarrhea induced by castor oil in rodents.
Materials and methods: The methanol extract of Rosa canina L. (30 and 60 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to two groups of mice (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice. Two other groups received normal saline and diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on intestinal transit and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) was assessed. The effects of the extract on the isolated rabbit jejunum and on the isolated rat ileum were studied.
Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of Rosa Canina L. revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and volatile oil. Intraperitoneal LD50 of the extract was found to be 455.19 ± 23 mg/kg in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the methanolic extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous pendular movement of the isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction of the rat ileum. A dose-dependent decrease in gastrointestinal transit was observed with extracts (30 and 60 mg/kg), which also protected mice against castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil-induced fluid accumulation, respectively.
Conclusions: The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the leaf extract may be responsible for the observed effects, and also the basis for its use in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal drug.
Keywords: Antidiarrheal activity; Rosa canina L.; castor oil; rodents.