In the past 30 years there have been major improvements in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, most of the available epidemiological data stem from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registries and information on the earlier stages of pediatric CKD is still limited. The median reported incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children aged 0-19 years across the world in 2008 was 9 (range: 4-18) [corrected] per million of the age-related population). [corrected] The prevalence of RRT in 2008 ranged from 18 to 100 per million of the age-related population. Congenital disorders, including congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and hereditary nephropathies, are responsible for about two thirds of all cases of CKD in developed countries, while acquired causes predominate in developing countries. Children with congenital disorders experience a slower progression of CKD than those with glomerulonephritis, resulting in a lower proportion of CAKUT in the ESRD population compared with less advanced stages of CKD. Most children with ESRD start on dialysis and then receive a transplant. While the survival rate of children with ERSD has improved, it remains about 30 times lower than that of healthy peers. Children now mainly die of cardiovascular causes and infection rather than from renal failure.