The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (idRTA) in men with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and its potential impact on bone mineral density. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 150 consecutive, male idiopathic recurrent calcium stone formers (RCSFs), which had originally been referred to the tertiary care stone center of the University Hospital of Berne for further metabolic evaluation. All RCSFs had been maintained on a free-choice diet while collecting two 24-h urine samples and delivered second morning urine samples after 12 h fasting. Among 12 RCSFs with a fasting urine pH >5.8, a modified 3-day ammonium chloride loading test identified idRTA in 10 patients (urine pH >5.32, idRTA group). We matched to each idRTA subject 5 control subjects from the 150 RCSFs, primary by BMI and then by age, i.e., 50 patients, without any acidification defect (non-RTA group) for comparative biochemistry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) analyses. The prevalence of primary idRTA among RCSFs was 6.7% (10/150). Patients with idRTA had significantly higher 2-h fasting and 24-h urine pH (2-h urine pH: 6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 5.2 ± 0.1, p = 0.001; 24-h urine pH: 6.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3, p = 0.001), 24-h urinary calcium excretion (7.70 ± 1.75 vs. 5.69 ± 1.73 mmol/d, p = 0.02), but significantly lower 24-h urinary urea excretion (323 ± 53 vs. 399 ± 114 mmol/d, p = 0.01), urinary citrate levels (2.32 ± 0.82 vs. 3.01 ± 0.72 mmol/d, p = 0.04) and renal phosphate threshold normalized for the glomerular filtration rate (TmPO(4)/GFR: 0.66 ± 0.17 vs. 0.82 ± 0.21, p = 0.03) compared to non-RTA patients. No significant difference in bone mineral density (BMD) was found between idRTA and non-RTA patients for the lumbar spine (LS BMD (g/cm(2)): 1.046 ± 0.245 SD vs. 1.005 ± 0.119 SD, p = 0.42) or femoral neck (FN BMD (g/cm(2)): 0.830 ± 0.135 SD vs. 0.852 ± 0.127 SD). Thus, idRTA occurs in 1 in 15 male RCSFs and should be sought in all recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis patients. Bone mineral density, however, does not appear to be significantly affected by idRTA.