Addressing schemes of self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: a European perspective and expert recommendation

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Sep;13(9):959-65. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0028. Epub 2011 Jun 29.


Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in type 2 diabetes has increasingly been shown to display beneficial effects on glycemic control. SMBG is not only associated with a reduction of hemoglobin A1c but has also been demonstrated to increase patients' awareness of the disease. SMBG has also the potential to visualize and predict hypoglycemic episodes. International guidelines by the International Diabetes Federation, the European Society of Cardiology, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and also the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes emphasize that SMBG is an integral part of self-management. More recently, two European consensus documents have been published to give recommendations for frequency and timing of SMBG also for various clinical scenarios. Recently, a European expert panel was held to further facilitate and enhance standardized approaches to SMBG. The aim was to present simple, clinically meaningful, and standardized SMBG strategies for type 2 diabetes. The panel recommended a less intensive and an intensive scheme for SMBG across the type 2 diabetes continuum. The length and frequency of SMBG performance depend on the clinical circumstances and the quality of glycemic control. The expert panel also recommended further evaluation of various schemes for SMBG in type 2 diabetes in clinical studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / standards
  • Child
  • Consensus Development Conferences as Topic
  • Diabetes Complications / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Europe
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Societies, Medical
  • Time Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human