Identifying the stage of new CLL patients using TK, ZAP-70, CD38 levels

Exp Oncol. 2011 Jun;33(2):99-103.


Serum thymidine kinase (TK), zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) and CD38 levels have been shown to be correlated with survival in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).

Aim: To investigate the possible correlations between TK, ZAP-70 and CD38 levels as prognostic markers in new diagnosed Rai stages of CLL patients.

Methods: 120 CLL patients were enrolled. ELISA was used to measure serum TK level, flow cytomerty - to determine ZAP-70 and CD38 expression applying ZAP-70 Kit and monoclonal antibody to CD38, respectively.

Results: Significantly higher levels of TK were found in the high progression group of CLL patients that corresponded to stage II (Rai classification). An elevated level of TK, CD38 and ZAP-70 together was also found in the II stage. The coefficient of correlation between CD38 and ZAP-70 is reliable (p < 0.001). There is also a correlation between the level of TK and the disease stage (p < 0.05). Other parameters do not show this correlation.

Conclusion: The determination of TK, ZAP-70 and CD38 together allows patients susceptible to a possible stage of the disease, to be identified. Estimation of the factors at an early stage of the disease may allow an earlier commencement of treatment.

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1 / blood*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Disease Progression
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology*
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Thymidine Kinase / blood*
  • ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase / blood*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Thymidine Kinase
  • ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
  • ZAP70 protein, human
  • CD38 protein, human
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1