Regulation of NF-κB induction by TCR/CD28

Immunol Res. 2011 Aug;50(2-3):113-7. doi: 10.1007/s12026-011-8216-z.


NF-κB family transcription factors are a common downstream target for inducible transcription mediated by many different cell-surface receptors, especially those receptors involved in inflammation and adaptive immunity. It is now clear that different classes of receptors employ different proximal signaling strategies to activate the common NF-κB signaling components, such as the IKK complex. For antigen receptors expressed by T and B cells, this pathway requires a complex of proteins including the proteins Carma1, Bcl10, and Malt1. Here, we discuss some of what is known about regulation of these proteins downstream of TCR/CD3 and co-stimulatory CD28 signaling. We also discuss another unique aspect of TCR-mediated NF-κB activation, i.e., the spatial restriction imposed on signaling events by the formation of the immunological synapse between a T cell and antigen-presenting cell presenting specific peptide/MHC.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology*
  • CD28 Antigens / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology
  • NF-kappa B / immunology*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology*
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • CD28 Antigens
  • NF-kappa B
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell