Background: Conventional sclerotherapy of varicose vein is performed by injection of a sclerosing substance into the vein. The modern use of foam in sclerotherapy in which sclerosants can be transformed into fine-bubbled foam by special techniques is developed. Many studies report about the better efficacy of foam therapy than conventional liquid therapy.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of sclerosant Polidocanol in foam form compared to liquid form and to determine safety profile by monitoring the complications (Pain, inflammation and pigmentation).
Material and method: Randomized controlled trial study, fifty patients with symptomatic varicose veins underwent duplex ultrasonography for measurement of the diameter of the varices. All patients underwent one session of sclerotherapy with both sclerosants (foam and liquid Polidocanol). Efficacy was assessed at 15, 30 and 90 days after the sclerotherapy by duplex ultrasound and the safety was evaluated at 15, 30, 90 days.
Results: The efficacy of sclerosis was reported in total occlusion of 46 sites (92.0%) in foam therapy and of 38 sites (76.0%) in Polidocanol liquid therapy after 90 days. The differences of occlusion for the two groups were statistically significant, foam therapy showed greater results than that of Polidocanol liquid therapy at 15 days, 30 days and 90 days after therapy Pain and hyperpigmentation were significantly higher in foam group than that in liquid group at 15 days and 30 days.
Conclusion: Foam sclerotherapy has greater efficacy for treating varicose veins comparing to conventional liquid sclerotherapy. However Pain, inflammation, and hyperpigmentation appeared more often with foam Polidocanol therapy.