Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. in Meriones shawi rats

J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):652-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.019. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The use of an aqueous extract of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.; Apiaceae, Umbelliferae) seeds (CS-extract) in Moroccan traditional treatment of diabetes remains to be experimentally validated.

Aim of the study: The study aim was to investigate potential hypoglycemic (and hypolipidemic) activity of CS-extract after a single oral dose and after daily dosing for 30 days (sub-chronic study) in normal and obese-hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic (OHH) Meriones shawi rats.

Materials and methods: After a single oral dose of CS-extract (20mg/kg; predetermined as optimum), plasma glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) were measured in normal and OHH rats (hypercaloric diet and forced limited physical activity); glibenclamide (GLB; 2.5mg/kg) was used as reference. In the sub-chronic study, the effect of CS-extract and GLB (at the above doses) on body weight (BW), plasma glucose, insulin, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, urea and creatinine was determined in normal and OHH rats; insulin resistance (IR as HOMA-IR), atherosclerotic and cardioprotective indices were calculated.

Results: A single dose of CS-extract or GLB suppressed hyperglycemia in OHH rats, and normo-glycemia was achieved at 6-h post-dose; there was no effect on lipids, TG or insulin, but IR decreased significantly. The hypoglycemic effect was lower in normal rats. In the sub-chronic study in OHH rats, the test substances (CS-extract>GLB) reduced plasma glucose (normoglycemia on Day 21), insulin and IR, TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG. Atherosclerotic index decreased while cardioprotective indices increased only by CS-extract, with no effect on BW, urea or creatinine.

Conclusion: Sub-chronic administration of CS-extract in OHH Meriones shawi rats normalized glycemia and decreased the elevated levels of insulin, IR, TC, LDL-cholesterol and TG. Since, the CS-extract decreased several components of the metabolic syndrome and decreased atherosclerotic and increased cardioprotective indices, CS-extract may have cardiovascular protective effect. The present study validates the traditional use of coriander in diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / blood
  • Atherosclerosis / etiology
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Coriandrum* / chemistry
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Gerbillinae
  • Hyperglycemia / blood
  • Hyperglycemia / complications
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / drug therapy*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Seeds
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Time Factors
  • Urea / blood
  • Water / chemistry

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Water
  • Urea
  • Creatinine