Clinical predictors of high risk histopathology in retinoblastoma

Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Mar;58(3):356-61. doi: 10.1002/pbc.23239. Epub 2011 Jun 30.


Background: Previous studies show that clinical features at presentation, in retinoblastoma patients, like glaucoma and neovascularization of iris are associated with a higher incidence of high risk histopathology findings (HRF) in enucleated eyes. Herein, we analyze association between clinical features at time of enucleation and occurrence of HRF including invasion of anterior chamber, iris, ciliary body, choroid (massive), sclera, extrascleral tissue, optic nerve beyond lamina cribrosa, and optic nerve cut end, in a large series of eyes enucleated for retinoblastoma.

Procedure: We retrospectively studied demographic, clinical, and histopathology findings in all retinoblastoma patients who underwent primary enucleation at our center, over a 5 years duration. Statistical analysis was done to find any association between clinical features at presentation and the presence of HRF.

Results: Three hundred twenty-six eyes were studied. Median age of presentation was 2 years. Glaucoma was the most common clinical finding at presentation apart from leucocoria. Out of 326 enucleated eyes, 28 (8.6%) had extrascleral and/or optic nerve transection invasion. Among remaining 298 eyes, with completely resected tumor, 115 (38.6%) had massive choroidal invasion, 54 (17%) had retrolaminar optic nerve invasion, and 24 (7%), 29 (9%), and 23(7%) had anterior chamber, iris, and ciliary body invasion, respectively. Age more than 2 years, lag period more than 3 months, hyphema, pseudohypopyon, staphyloma, and orbital cellulitis were associated with occurrence of three or more HRF on univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Clinical variables including older age, longer lag period, hyphema, pseudohypopyon, staphyloma, and orbital cellulitis were strongly associated with occurrence of HRF in this study.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eye Enucleation
  • Female
  • Glaucoma / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Necrosis / epidemiology
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Retinal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Retinal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Retinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • Retinoblastoma / epidemiology
  • Retinoblastoma / pathology*
  • Retinoblastoma / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult