Personalized medicine is a broad and rapidly advancing field of health care that is informed by each person's unique clinical, genetic, genomic, and environmental information. Personalized medicine depends on multidisciplinary health care teams and integrated technologies (e.g., clinical decision support) to utilize our molecular understanding of disease in order to optimize preventive health care strategies. Human genome information now allows providers to create optimized care plans at every stage of a disease, shifting the focus from reactive to preventive health care. The further integration of personalized medicine into the clinical workflow requires overcoming several barriers in education, accessibility, regulation, and reimbursement. This review focuses on providing a comprehensive understanding of personalized medicine, from scientific discovery at the laboratory bench to integration of these novel ways of understanding human biology at the bedside.