Objective: We assessed the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial-dependent vasodilation and carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT) in young people.
Study design: Adolescents were recruited in 3 groups: subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 15), subjects who were obese and non-insulin resistant (n = 13), and lean control subjects (n = 13). Body mass index was similar in subjects with obesity and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but higher compared with that of lean control subjects (both P < .001). Brachial artery FMD and cIMT were assessed by using Duplex ultrasound scanning imaging.
Results: There were no significant differences in brachial or common carotid arterial diameters in the groups. cIMT was significantly greater in the group with type 2 diabetes mellitus (0.54 ± 0.01mm) compared with both the lean control (0.46 ± 0.02 mm, P < .001) and obese control (0.46 ± 0.02 mm, P < .01) groups. FMD was significantly decreased in the group with type 2 diabetes mellitus (7.98% ± 0.54%) compared with the lean group (10.40% ± 1.00%, P < .05).
Conclusions: Measures of vascular health were impaired in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with lean and obese adolescents who were not insulin resistant. Measures of arterial function and structure may provide pre-clinical measures of cardiovascular disease in young people at elevated risk.
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