We review mechanisms that regulate production of glucose by the liver, focusing on areas of budding consensus, and endeavoring to provide a candid assessment of lingering controversies. We also attempt to reconcile data from tracer studies in humans and large animals with the growing compilation of mouse knockouts that display changes in glucose production. A clinical hallmark of diabetes, excessive glucose production remains key to its treatment. Hence, we attempt to integrate emerging pathways into the broader goal to rejuvenate the staid antidiabetic pharmacopeia.
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