Folate hydrolase (prostate-specific antigen) 1 (FH(PSA)1), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), is a transmembrane receptor expressed on prostate cancer cells that correlates with a more aggressive phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated FH(PSA)1 expression in numerous benign and malignant tissue types, as well as the malignant neovasculature. As FH(PSA)1 represents a diagnostic immunomarker for prostate cancer, we explored its expression pattern in various subtypes of bladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of FH(PSA)1 was performed using tissue microarrays constructed from 167 bladder cancers, including 96 urothelial carcinomas (UCCs), 37 squamous cell carcinomas, 17 adenocarcinomas and 17 small cell carcinomas. We used a FH(PSA)1 monoclonal antibody obtained from Dako (clone 3E6, dilution 1:100), which recognizes the epitope present in the 57-134 amino acid region of the extracellular portion of the PSMA molecule. Intensity of IHC staining was scored as 0 (no expression) to 3+ (strong expression), with 2-3+ IHC considered a positive result. FH(PSA)1 demonstrated expression in a subset of bladder cancers and was most common in small cell carcinoma (3/17; 18%), with concurrent expression in non-small cell components in a subset of cases (2/6). FH(PSA)1 expression was less frequent in UCC (3/96; 3%) and adenocarcinoma (2/17; 12%). None of the squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated tumor cell expression of FH(PSA)1. However, all bladder cancers examined expressed FH(PSA)1 in the tumor vasculature, suggesting a potential role for this molecule in mediating new vessel ingrowth. FH(PSA)1 may occasionally be expressed in various subtypes of bladder cancer. These findings suggest cautious use of FH(PSA)1 as a diagnostic marker for prostatic tissue invading the bladder. The finding of FH(PSA)1 in the bladder cancer neovasculature suggests that this molecule may promote tumor growth and may represent a potential new vascular target in this disease.