Are there differences in the catalytic activity per unit enzyme of recombinantly expressed and human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9? A systematic investigation into inter-system extrapolation factors

Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2011 Sep;32(6):303-18. doi: 10.1002/bdd.760. Epub 2011 Jul 4.


The 'relative activity factor' (RAF) compares the activity per unit of microsomal protein in recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (rhCYP) and human liver without separating the potential sources of variation (i.e. abundance of enzyme per mg of protein or variation of activity per unit enzyme). The dimensionless 'inter-system extrapolation factor' (ISEF) dissects differences in activity from those in CYP abundance. Detailed protocols for the determination of this scalar, which is used in population in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), are currently lacking. The present study determined an ISEF for CYP2C9 and, for the first time, systematically evaluated the effects of probe substrate, cytochrome b5 and methods for assessing the intrinsic clearance (CL(int) ). Values of ISEF for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac were 0.75 ± 0.18, 0.57 ± 0.07 and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively, using CL(int) values derived from the kinetic values V(max) and K(m) of metabolite formation in rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 BD Supersomes™. The ISEF values obtained using rhCYP2C9 + reductase BD Supersomes™ were more variable, with values of 7.16 ± 1.25, 0.89 ± 0.52 and 0.50 ± 0.05 for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac, respectively. Although the ISEF values obtained from rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 for the three probe substrates were statistically different (p < 0.001), the use of the mean value of 0.54 resulted in predicted oral clearance values for all three substrates within 1.4 fold of the observed literature values. For consistency in the relative activity across substrates, use of a b5 expressing recombinant system, with the intrinsic clearance calculated from full kinetic data is recommended for generation of the CYP2C9 ISEF. Furthermore, as ISEFs have been found to be sensitive to differences in accessory proteins, rhCYP system specific ISEFs are recommended.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / analysis
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / metabolism
  • Anticoagulants / analysis
  • Anticoagulants / metabolism
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / analysis
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / metabolism*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / analysis
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Cytochromes b5 / analysis
  • Cytochromes b5 / metabolism
  • Diclofenac / analysis
  • Diclofenac / metabolism
  • Enzyme Assays
  • Forecasting / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / analysis
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Microsomes, Liver / enzymology*
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Tolbutamide / analysis
  • Tolbutamide / metabolism
  • Warfarin / analysis
  • Warfarin / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Anticoagulants
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Diclofenac
  • Warfarin
  • Cytochromes b5
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Tolbutamide
  • CYP2C9 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases