Objective: To investigate whether there is an increased risk of cardiac events with a combined therapy of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Design: In the BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitäts Trial (BASKET), all patients undergoing PCI received 6 months of clopidogrel and were analysed for the use of PPI therapy. Endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), death and target vessel revascularization (TVR) after 36 months.
Results: Of 801 patients with available discharge medication data, 109 (14%) received PPIs. Patients who received PPIs were older (66.5 ± 10.5 vs. 63.3 ± 11.3 years, P = 0.006), more likely to be woman (80% vs. 69%, P = 0.009) and have a history of diabetes (29.6% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.002) or gastrointestinal ulcer disease (8.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.015) and more often received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (7.3% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.003) and corticosteroids (11% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.001) but not aspirin (91.7% vs. 97%, P = 0.008) compared with those who did not receive PPIs. Patients who received PPI therapy had higher rates of MACE (30.3% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.027) and MI (14.7% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.01) but similar rates of death (9.2% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.51) and TVR (20.2% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.2) compared with those who did not. By multivariate analysis, diabetes (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.15) and PPI use (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.37) were the only independent risk factors for MI.
Conclusion: In a real-world PCI population, the combination of PPIs and clopidogrel was associated with a doubling of MI rates after 3 years. Even after correction for confounding factors, concomitant PPI use remained an independent predictor of outcome emphasizing the clinical importance of this drug-drug interaction.
© 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.