Immuno-imaging is a developing technology that aims at studying disease in patients using imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography in combination with radiolabeled immunoglobulin derived targeting probes. Nanobodies are the smallest antigen-binding antibody-fragments and show fast and specific targeting in vivo. These probes are currently under investigation as therapeutics but preclinical studies indicate that nanobodies could also become the next generation of magic bullets for immuno-imaging. Initial data show that imaging can be performed as early as 1 hour post-injection enabling the use of short-lived radio-isotopes. These unique properties should enable patient friendly and safe imaging protocols. This review focuses on the current status of radiolabeled nanobodies as targeting probes for immuno-imaging.
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