Controlled release of 6-aminonicotinamide from aligned, electrospun fibers alters astrocyte metabolism and dorsal root ganglia neurite outgrowth

J Neural Eng. 2011 Aug;8(4):046026. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/8/4/046026. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Abstract

Following central nervous system (CNS) injury, activated astrocytes form a glial scar that inhibits the migration of axons ultimately leading to regeneration failure. Biomaterials developed for CNS repair can provide local delivery of therapeutics and/or guidance mechanisms to encourage cell migration into damaged regions of the brain or spinal cord. Electrospun fibers are a promising type of biomaterial for CNS injury since these fibers can direct cellular and axonal migration while slowly delivering therapy to the injury site. In this study, it was hypothesized that inclusion of an anti-metabolite, 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), within poly-l-lactic acid electrospun fibers could attenuate astrocyte metabolic activity while still directing axonal outgrowth. Electrospinning parameters were varied to produce highly aligned electrospun fibers that contained 10% or 20% (w/w) 6AN. 6AN release from the fiber substrates occurred continuously over 2 weeks. Astrocytes placed onto drug-releasing fibers were less active than those cultured on scaffolds without 6AN. Dorsal root ganglia placed onto control and drug-releasing scaffolds were able to direct neurites along the aligned fibers. However, neurite outgrowth was stunted by fibers that contained 20% 6AN. These results show that 6AN release from aligned, electrospun fibers can decrease astrocyte activity while still directing axonal outgrowth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 6-Aminonicotinamide / administration & dosage
  • 6-Aminonicotinamide / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / drug effects*
  • Astrocytes / metabolism*
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Chick Embryo
  • Coloring Agents
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Excipients
  • Ganglia, Spinal / cytology
  • Ganglia, Spinal / drug effects
  • Ganglia, Spinal / metabolism*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lactic Acid
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Nanostructures
  • Nanotechnology
  • Nerve Regeneration
  • Neurites / drug effects
  • Neurites / metabolism*
  • Neurites / ultrastructure
  • Organ Culture Techniques
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Spiro Compounds

Substances

  • 2-methylene-1,4,6-trioxyspiro(4,6)undecane
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Coloring Agents
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Excipients
  • Spiro Compounds
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • 6-Aminonicotinamide
  • Lactic Acid