Prevalence and determinants of glaucoma in citizens of qatar aged 40 years or older: a community-based survey

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr;18(2):141-9. doi: 10.4103/0974-9233.80703.


Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar.

Materials and methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma.

Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision <3/60) and severe visual impairment (<6/60) were found in four (6%) and three (4.5%) subjects with glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects.

Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia.

Keywords: Blindness; Glaucoma; Prevalence Survey; Public Health; VISION 2020.