Conventional bariatric operations, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) appear to be a safe and effective treatment for many severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These operations improve glucose homeostasis through a variety of mechanisms, however, not only due to reduced food intake and body weight. Research to elucidate the weight-independent antidiabetic mechanisms of gastrointestinal (GI) surgery and to clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the benefits of GI surgery on glucose homeostasis is a compelling research objective. We review the existing knowledge regarding the clinical outcomes and of the mechanisms of GI surgery to treat T2DM.
© 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.