The management of bone defects caused by trauma and nonunion continues to represent a substantial clinical challenge in the management of orthopaedic trauma patients. A variety of treatment options have been described and reported in the literature. The relative rarity of these injuries means that high level, comparative evidence to guide their management is sparse. As such, treatment decisions must be based on knowledge of the available evidence, contemporary fracture management principles, and consideration of patient and surgeon factors. This article reviews the available evidence for the different treatment options available for the management of bone defects.