Faithful transmission of genetic material in eukaryotic cells requires not only accurate DNA replication and chromosome distribution but also the ability to sense and repair spontaneous and induced DNA damage. To maintain genomic integrity, cells undergo a DNA damage response using a complex network of signaling pathways composed of coordinate sensors, transducers and effectors in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. Emerging evidence has suggested that miRNAs play a crucial role in regulation of DNA damage response. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on how miRNAs interact with the canonical DNA damage response and how miRNA expression is regulated after DNA damage.
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