Objective: To evaluate the presence within the peri-implant sulcus of Tannerela forsythia (Tf), Porphyromonas gingivales (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and relate these bacteria to the peri-implant crevicular fluid volume (PICFV).
Material and method: A prospective and cross-sectional clinical case series study was made. For the measurement of crevicular fluid, use was made of the Periotron® 8000 (Proflow Incorporated. New York, USA), measuring the volume in Periotron units (PU). For the detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria we used the IAI-PadoTest 4.5 (IAI Inc., IAI Institute, Zuchwil, Switzerland) - a system for the detection of Tf, Pg, Td and Aa based on the use of RNA arrays.
Results: We included 34 patients (19 females and 15 males) with a mean age of 56.4 years. Of these subjects, 30.8% were smokers and 69.2% non-smokers. Out of a total series of 213 implants, we analyzed the crevicular fluid and microbiota in 90 implants. A total of 16.5% of the implants presented mucositis, while 83.5% were in healthy peri-implant conditions. The microbiological study revealed the presence of Tf in 17.1% of the implants, Pg in 9.3%, Td in 13.6%, in Aa in none of the implants. The mean Periotron reading was 93.4 PU (range 12-198 PU). A statistically significant (p<0.05) relationship was observed between PICFV and the total percentage bacteria (Tf, Pg and Td) - with a strong association between the Td levels and smoking (p<0.01). In the implants with mucositis, the concentration of Pg and Td was greater.
Conclusions: In the implants studied, the subgingival peri-implant microbiota was characterized by low levels of Pg, Tf, Td, and none of the patients proved positive for Aa. These bacteria showed a positive correlation to crevicular fluid volume, and a statistically significant relationship was observed between Td and smoking.