Dendritic cells (DC) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important cells involved in immune response. DC can be generated from mouse bone marrow (BM) in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4. Recent studies have revealed that combined treatment of bone marrow MDSC with LPS plus IFN-γ inhibited the DC development but enhanced MDSC functions, such as NO release and T cell suppression. In our study, bone marrow precursor cells cultures in GM-CSF and IL-4 were treated with poly(I:C) through the culture, Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells with MDSC functions, such as NO release and T cell suppression were accumulated in the culture system. Then the similar phenomenon was observed in the vesicular stomatitis virus infection in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the bone marrow precursor cells in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 can differentiate into MDSC, which is dependent on the dynamic of interaction with poly(I:C).