Background: The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) immunological profile, its impact on pSS activity and long-term evolution in a bicentric cohort of French patients with pSS (n = 445, mean age 53.6 ± 14 years, mean follow-up 76.1 ± 51 months).
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study.
Results: Two hundred twelve patients were Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA) positive, and 131 were both SSA and Sjögren's syndrome B (SSB) positive. Sixty-eight patients (15%) had cryoglobulinemia. Active systemic profile (i.e., hypergammaglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor (RF), and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A (anti-SSA), anti-Sjögren's syndrome B (anti-SSB) positivity), associated with multisystemic involvement, leads to an increased utilization of corticosteroid and hydroxychloroquine. Multivariate analysis pointed out independent statistical association between hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-SSA, anti-SSB, and RF. Cryoglobulinemia is associated with multi-systemic involvement, lymphoma, and pSS-related death.
Conclusion: The subset of patients with active immunological profile is characterized by systemic complications leading to immunosuppressive drug utilization and polyclonal B-cell activation profile.