Background: Among the numerous renal diseases observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of our study was to describe the presentation and outcome of HIVAN in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Methods: We analysed clinical features and outcome of 57 patients with histologically proven HIVAN diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in four teaching hospitals in Paris, France.
Results: This series was characterized by median age of 41 years (18-58), frequent African origin (87%), severe renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 20 mL/min/1.73m(2) (1-68)], high-grade proteinuria [4.1 g/day (0.6-16.8)], high proportion of sclerotic glomeruli [31.5% (0-95)], high HIV load [4.5 log copies/mL (0-6.7)] and low CD4+ count [127/mm(3) (3-713)]. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of patients did not present with these typical features. Follow-up data were available for 51 patients. ESRD occurred in 30 patients (58.8%). Median renal survival was 40 months. Baseline characteristics significantly associated with ESRD were as follows: severity of renal dysfunction, percentage of sclerotic glomeruli, time from HIV infection to HIVAN diagnosis longer than 1 year and prior exposure to antiretroviral drugs. There was an insignificant trend towards better renal outcome being associated with viral suppression during follow-up. Use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers was associated with higher renal survival (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Despite HAART, HIVAN led to ESRD in more than half of the cases. Early recognition of the disease is crucial to start HAART and RAS blockers before irreversible renal injury.