Presentation of HIV-associated nephropathy and outcome in HAART-treated patients

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Mar;27(3):1114-21. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr376. Epub 2011 Jul 10.


Background: Among the numerous renal diseases observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of our study was to describe the presentation and outcome of HIVAN in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Methods: We analysed clinical features and outcome of 57 patients with histologically proven HIVAN diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in four teaching hospitals in Paris, France.

Results: This series was characterized by median age of 41 years (18-58), frequent African origin (87%), severe renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 20 mL/min/1.73m(2) (1-68)], high-grade proteinuria [4.1 g/day (0.6-16.8)], high proportion of sclerotic glomeruli [31.5% (0-95)], high HIV load [4.5 log copies/mL (0-6.7)] and low CD4+ count [127/mm(3) (3-713)]. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of patients did not present with these typical features. Follow-up data were available for 51 patients. ESRD occurred in 30 patients (58.8%). Median renal survival was 40 months. Baseline characteristics significantly associated with ESRD were as follows: severity of renal dysfunction, percentage of sclerotic glomeruli, time from HIV infection to HIVAN diagnosis longer than 1 year and prior exposure to antiretroviral drugs. There was an insignificant trend towards better renal outcome being associated with viral suppression during follow-up. Use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers was associated with higher renal survival (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Despite HAART, HIVAN led to ESRD in more than half of the cases. Early recognition of the disease is crucial to start HAART and RAS blockers before irreversible renal injury.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / diagnosis*
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / pathology
  • HIV-1
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Renin-Angiotensin System
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult