Promoter methylation of p16(INK4A), hMLH1, and MGMT in liquid-based cervical cytology samples compared with clinicopathological findings and HPV presence

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:927861. doi: 10.1155/2011/927861. Epub 2011 Jun 4.


Cervical cancer is a common cancer inflicting women worldwide. Even though, persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types is considered the most important risk factor for cervical cancer development, less than 5% of women with HPV will eventually develop cervical cancer supporting that other molecular events, like methylation-dependent inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, may cocontribute in cervical carcinogenesis. We analyzed promoter methylation of three candidate genes (p16, MGMT, and hMLH1) in 403 liquid-based cytology samples. Methylation was commonly identified in both benign and pathologic samples and correlated with higher lesion grade determined by cytological, colposcopical, or histological findings, with HPV DNA and mRNA positivity of specific HPV types and p16(INK4A) protein expression. Overall accuracy of methylation is much lower than traditional diagnostic tests ranking it as an ancillary technique with more data needed to identify the exact value of methylation status in cervical carcinogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cervix Uteri / cytology
  • Cervix Uteri / virology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Colposcopy
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation*
  • DNA Modification Methylases / genetics*
  • DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / genetics*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • ROC Curve
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology*


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • MLH1 protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Modification Methylases
  • MGMT protein, human
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • DNA Repair Enzymes