Is there a difference in pregnancy and glycemic outcome in patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump with constant or intermittent glucose monitoring? A pilot study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Nov;13(11):1109-13. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0081. Epub 2011 Jul 13.


Background: The aim of the study is to describe glycemic and insulin outcomes by trimester and maternal and fetal outcome in patients with type 1 diabetes using an insulin pump with constant or intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

Methods: Twenty-five women with type 1 diabetes with newly diagnosed pregnancy were treated with insulin pump therapy (Medtronic 722, Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) for at least 1 year. Insulin pump and CGM (Medtronic Paradigm Real-Time) were implemented at least 3 months before conception. Patients were randomized in two groups: constant CGM group, 12 patients on insulin pump with glucose sensor, 24 h/day; and intermittent CGM group, 13 patients on insulin pump with intermittent glucose sensor, 14 days/month. The following parameters were analyzed: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), mean blood glucose, insulin requirement (in IU/kg/day), weight gain, severe hypoglycemic events, diabetic ketoacidosis, macrosomia, cesarean section, and neonatal hypoglycemia.

Results: Both groups achieved good glucose control during their pregnancies (P<0.05): 6.78±1.3% and 6.92±0.9% at the beginning of the study compared with 6.14±0.9% (constant CGM group) and 6.23±0.6% (intermittent CGM group) at the end of the study (last HbA1c before delivery). There was no significant decrease of HbA1c between the two groups. The constant CGM group had a significantly lower A1c in the first trimester compared with the intermittent CGM group. Maternal and fetal outcome did not show a significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: Insulin pump therapy together with constant or intermittent CGM can improve diabetes control and pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetes. The quality of the glucose profile at conception was the important factor for pregnancy outcome.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Cesarean Section / statistics & numerical data
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fetal Macrosomia / epidemiology
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Pilot Projects
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / blood*
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human