Changing EMS dispatcher CPR instructions to 400 compressions before mouth-to-mouth improved bystander CPR rates

Resuscitation. 2011 Nov;82(11):1393-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2011.06.018. Epub 2011 Jun 24.


Background: To examine the impact of changing dispatcher CPR instructions (400 compressions: 2 breaths, followed by 100:2 ratio) on rates of bystander CPR and survival in adults with presumed cardiac out-of-hospital arrest (OHCA) in Melbourne, Australia.

Methods: The Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry (VACAR) was searched for OHCA where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) attempted CPR between August 2006 and August 2009. OHCA included were: (1) patients aged ≥18 years old; (2) presumed cardiac etiology; and (3) not witnessed by EMS.

Results: For the pre- and post-study periods, 1021 and 2101 OHCAs met inclusion criteria, respectively. Rates of bystander CPR increased overall (45-55%, p<0.001) and by initial rhythm (shockable 55-70%, p<0.001 and non-shockable 40-46%, p=0.01). In VF/VT OHCA, there were improvements in the number of patients arriving at hospital with a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (48-56%, p=0.02) and in survival to hospital discharge (21-29%, p=0.002), with improved outcomes restricted to patients receiving bystander CPR. After adjusting for factors associated with survival, the period of time following the change in CPR instructions was a significant predictor of survival to hospital discharge in VF/VT patients (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15-2.20, p=0.005).

Conclusion: Following changes to dispatcher CPR instructions, significant increases were seen in rates of bystander CPR and improvements were seen in survival in VF/VT patients who received bystander CPR, after adjusting for factors associated with survival.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods*
  • Emergency Medical Services*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / mortality*
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate