Thirty-four suspected primary bone neoplasms were evaluated by needle biopsy at M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute between September 1976 and February 1978. Adequate material for evaluation was obtained in 31 cases. The accuracy rate of the procedure was 93%. Needle biopsy is a rapid, effective and safe method of evaluating unsuspected primary lesions of bone. The indications, contraindications, and technique are emphasized. The benefits over open biopsy are indicated.