Session 1 of the 2009 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association of Haematopathology, Cleveland, OH, focused on plasma cell neoplasms. This report summarizes the salient diagnostic, clinical, and genetic features of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and related neoplasms. Based on the cases submitted to the workshop, we highlight common diagnostic issues and unusual manifestations of plasma cell neoplasms, such as t(11;14)+ PCM, plasma cell leukemia, and nonsecretory plasmacytoma, as well as plasmablastic transformation of PCM. Additional issues repeatedly raised at the workshop included the differential diagnosis of extramedullary dissemination of PCM vs primary extramedullary plasmacytoma and plasmablastic lymphoma; systemic plasma cell neoplasms in immunocompromised people; and Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasma cell neoplasms. Difficult cases with borderline features presented by submitters emphasized the necessity of integrating clinical, immunophenotypic, and genetic features for appropriate classification of these disorders.