Background: Bronchiectasis continues to be one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, with a probably underestimated higher prevalence than in developed countries.
Objective: To assess the clinical profile of adult patients with bronchiectasis.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and physiologic findings of 304 patients with bronchiectasis confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography.
Results: Mean age of participants (45.7% males, 54.3% females) was 56 ± 25 years and 65.8% of them were lifetime non-smokers. Most common identified causes of bronchiectasis were childhood disease (22.7%), tuberculosis (15.5%), and pneumonia (11.5%). The predominant symptoms were productive cough (83.6%), dyspnea (72%), and hemoptysis (21.1%). The most common findings on chest examination were crackles (71.1%) and rhonchi (28.3%). Types of bronchiectasis were cylindrical in 47%, varicose in 9.9%, cystic in 45.1%, and multiple types in 24.3%. Involvement was multilobar in 75.3% and bilateral in 62.5%. Of 274 patients, 20.8% displayed normal pulmonary function test results, whereas 47.4%, 8% and 23.7% showed obstructive, restrictive, and mixed pattern, respectively. Patients with cystic disease had a higher frequency of hemoptysis (42%) and a greater degree of functional impairment, compared to other types.
Conclusion: In patients with bronchiectasis from southern Turkey, generally presenting with recurrent productive cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, and persistent bibasilar rales, the etiology remains mainly idiopathic. Post-infectious bronchial destruction is one of the major identified underlying pathological processes. The clinical picture and the deterioration of the pulmonary function test might be more severe in patients with cystic type bronchiectasis.
Keywords: Asthma; bronchiectasis; chest X-ray; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; computed tomography; respiratory function test.