Serum levels of S-100B were investigated as a marker for infarct volume and response to treatment following acute ischemic stroke in rabbits. Following subselective angiography, rabbits (n=31) were embolized by injection of a 3-day-old blood clot (0.6x4.0-mm) into the internal carotid artery. Treatment began 1-hr post-embolization, groups included: Control (n=8, embolization only), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, n=12, 0.9mg/kg), and perflutren lipid microbubbles with transcranial ultrasound (MB+US, n=11, MB at 0.16mg/kg, US at 1-MHz pulsed-wave, 0.8 W/cm(2) for 1-hr). Serum S-100B levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) 24-hours following embolization in control (3.1-fold over baseline) and tPA (2.9-fold) groups, while treatment with MB+US resulted in an attenuated, non-significant (P=0.221) increase (1.6-fold). Twenty-four hour infarct volumes averaged 4.76%±1.16% for controls, 2.25%±0.95% for rabbits treated with tPA (P=0.32 vs. control), and 0.79%±0.99% for rabbits treated with MB+US (P=0.04 vs. control). Twenty-four hour concentrations of S-100B were positively correlated with infarct volume (r=0.59, P=0.0004).
Keywords: S-100B.; Stroke; animal model; biomarkers.