Aim: To evaluate the effects of the adjunctive use of metronidazole (MTZ) or MTZ+amoxicillin (AMX) in the treatment of generalized chronic periodontitis (ChP).
Materials and methods: Fifty-one subjects (n=17/group) were randomly assigned to receive scaling and root planing (SRP) only or combined with MTZ (400 mg t.i.d.) or MTZ+AMX (500 mg t.i.d.) for 14 days. Clinical and microbiological examinations were performed at baseline and 3 months post-SRP. Nine plaque samples/subject were analysed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for 40 bacterial species.
Results: Subjects receiving MTZ+AMX exhibited a greater mean gain of clinical attachment, reduction in probing depth (PD) in intermediate and deep sites and a lower percentage of sites with PD5 mm at 3 months, in comparison with those treated with SRP only (p<0.05). The major benefit from the adjunctive use of MTZ was a greater reduction in PD in deep sites. SRP+MTZ+AMX was the only treatment that significantly reduced the levels and proportions of all red complex pathogens and elicited a significantly greater beneficial change in the microbial profile in comparison with SRP only.
Conclusion: The adjunctive use of MTZ+AMX offers short-term clinical and microbiological benefits, over SRP alone, in the treatment of non-smokers subjects with generalized ChP. The added benefits of MTZ were less evident.
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.