Clinical trial of oral malodor treatment in patients with periodontal diseases

J Periodontal Res. 2011 Dec;46(6):722-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2011.01395.x. Epub 2011 Jul 18.


Background and objective: Only a few clinical research studies have assessed different therapeutic approaches to oral malodor in subjects affected by periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment and tongue cleaning on oral malodor parameters in periodontitis and gingivitis patients.

Material and methods: The subjects were 102 periodontitis and 116 gingivitis patients with oral malodor. Oral malodor was measured by organoleptic test and Oral Chroma™. Oral health status, including tooth conditions, periodontal health, tongue coating and proteolytic activity of the BANA test in tongue coating were assessed. Subjects in each periodontal disease group were randomly assigned into two subgroups depending on the sequence of treatment: periodontal treatment and tongue cleaning. Oral malodor and oral health parameters were compared by groups and sequence of treatment.

Results: For subjects in the periodontitis group, there were statistically significant reductions in oral malodor after periodontitis treatment or tongue cleaning; however, major reductions were found after periodontitis treatment. For those in the gingivitis group, there were also statistically significant reductions in oral malodor after gingivitis treatment or tongue cleaning, but the most marked reductions were observed after tongue cleaning. At the completion of treatment, all oral malodor parameters fell below the threshold levels in all subgroups.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that periodontal treatment played an important role and tongue cleaning contributed to a lesser extent to reduction in oral malodor in periodontitis patients. In contrast, tongue cleaning alone can be the primary approach to reduce oral malodor in gingivitis patients.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide
  • Breath Tests
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Dental Scaling
  • Female
  • Gingivitis / complications*
  • Gingivitis / therapy*
  • Halitosis / etiology
  • Halitosis / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Sulfide / analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontitis / complications*
  • Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / analysis
  • Tongue* / chemistry
  • Tongue* / microbiology
  • Tongue* / pathology


  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • methylmercaptan
  • Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide
  • Hydrogen Sulfide