The pressing need to develop antivirals active against resistant strains of HIV-1 has led to efforts to target steps in the virus life cycle other than reverse transcription and Gag proteolysis. Among those steps are entry, integration, and assembly and/or maturation. Advances in understanding the structural biology of both the immature and the mature forms of the HIV capsid have made it possible to design or discover small molecules and peptides that interfere with both assembly and maturation. Here, we review the current state of the art in assembly and maturation inhibitors.
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