Background & aims: The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of the ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), and the effects of CGRP and substance P.
Methods: We used calcium-imaging, patch-clamp, and neuropeptide-release assays to evaluate the effects of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) and dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt on neurons. Colitis was induced in wild-type, knockout, and desensitized mice.
Results: TNBS induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic substance P and CGRP, influx of Ca2+, and sustained ionic inward currents in colonic sensory neurons and transfected HEK293t cells. Analysis of mutant forms of TRPA1 revealed that TNBS bound covalently to cysteine (and lysine) residues in the cytoplasmic N-terminus. A stable sulfinic acid transformation of the cysteine-SH group, shown by mass spectrometry, might contribute to sustained sensitization of TRPA1. Mice with colitis had increased colonic neuropeptide release, mediated by TRPA1. Endogenous products of inflammatory lipid peroxidation also induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic neuropeptides; levels of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal increased in each model of colitis. Colitis induction by TNBS or dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt was inhibited or reduced in TRPA1-/- mice and by 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopro-pylphenyl)-acetamide, a pharmacologic inhibitor of TRPA1. Substance P had a proinflammatory effect that was dominant over CGRP, based on studies of knockout mice. Ablation of extrinsic sensory neurons prevented or attenuated TNBS-induced release of neuropeptides and both forms of colitis.
Conclusions: Neuroimmune interactions control intestinal inflammation. Activation and sensitization of TRPA1 and release of substance P induce and maintain colitis in mice.
Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.