Effect of low-fat diets on plasma levels of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in men with prostate cancer

Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Oct;4(10):1590-8. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0136. Epub 2011 Jul 15.


Diet, nutritional status, and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain. We explored changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a preoperative, randomized controlled phase II trial with four arms: control (usual diet), low-fat (LF) diet, flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet, and FS+LS diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30 to 31 days. Among the individual arms, the largest number of significant changes (baseline vs. preoperative follow-up) was observed in the LF arm, with 19 CAFs decreasing and one increasing (P < 0.05). Compared with the control arm, 6 CAFs-including proangiogenic factors (stromal-cell derived-1α) and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-all decreased in the LF arm compared with controls; three and four CAFs changed in the FS and FS+LF arms, respectively. Weight loss occurred in the LF arms and significantly correlated with VEGF decreases (P < 0.001). The CAFs that changed in the LF arm are all known to be regulated by NF-κB, and a pathway analysis identified NF-κB as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes in the LF arm but not in the FS-containing arms. These results suggest that a LF diet without flaxseed may reduce levels of specific inflammatory CAFs and suggests that the NF-κB pathway may be a mediator of these changes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / blood*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Flax
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B / blood*
  • Prognosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diet therapy*
  • Weight Loss


  • Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • NF-kappa B