Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain

J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jul 18;8:81. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-81.


Background: Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may promote neuronal survival and repair. While the effects of estradiol on neuroprotection are well studied, what induces glial aromatase expression remains unknown.

Methods: Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohistochemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test.

Results: Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression.

Conclusions: These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aromatase / genetics
  • Aromatase / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Brain / anatomy & histology
  • Brain / cytology*
  • Brain / enzymology*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain Injuries / metabolism
  • Brain Injuries / pathology
  • Cell Death / physiology
  • Encephalitis / chemically induced
  • Encephalitis / enzymology*
  • Encephalitis / pathology*
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Finches* / anatomy & histology
  • Finches* / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / genetics
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Male
  • Neuroglia / cytology
  • Neuroglia / enzymology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / metabolism
  • Phytohemagglutinins / pharmacology


  • Biomarkers
  • Estrogens
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Phytohemagglutinins
  • Aromatase