Objective: Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) may play a critical role in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), and imatinib is a potent inhibitor of TGFβ and PDGF production. In this 1-year, phase I/IIa open-label pilot study of imatinib in patients with SSc-related active ILD, our primary aim was to assess the safety of imatinib; we also explored its efficacy.
Methods: We recruited 20 SSc patients with a forced vital capacity (FVC) of <85% predicted, dyspnea on exertion, and presence of a ground-glass appearance on high-resolution computed tomography. Patients received oral therapy with imatinib (up to 600 mg/day) for a period of 1 year. Adverse events were recorded, pulmonary function was tested, and the modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS) was assessed every 3 months. The course of changes in lung function, the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI), and the MRSS were modeled over the period of study to explore treatment efficacy.
Results: The majority of patients were female (65%), Caucasian (75%), and had diffuse cutaneous SSc (70%). At baseline, the mean ± SD FVC % predicted was 65.2 ± 14.0 and the mean ± SD MRSS was 18.7 ± 10.1. The mean ± SD dosage of imatinib was 445 ± 125 mg/day. Of the 20 SSc patients, 12 completed the study, 7 discontinued because of adverse events (AEs), and 1 patient was lost to followup. Common AEs (≥20%) included fatigue, facial/lower extremity edema, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, generalized rash, and new-onset proteinuria. Treatment with imatinib showed a trend toward improvement in the FVC % predicted (1.74%; P not significant) and the MRSS (3.9 units; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Use of high-dose daily therapy with imatinib (600 mg/day) in SSc patients with ILD was associated with a large number of AEs. Our experience with AEs suggests that dosages of imatinib lower than 600 mg/day may be appropriate and that further dose ranging analysis is needed in order to understand the therapeutic index of imatinib in SSc.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00512902.
Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.