Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency encompasses a group of heterogeneous conditions linked by a lack of immunoglobulin production and primary antibody failure. Although primary immunodeficiencies are typically characterized by recurrent infections, autoimmune manifestations have increasingly been recognized. Neurological complications are extremely rare and to the best of our knowledge optic neuritis has not been described previously. We report the case of a patient with common variable immunodeficiency who developed loss of vision secondary to bilateral optic neuritis.
Case presentation: A 26-year-old Caucasian man with a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency presented to our facility with loss of vision secondary to bilateral optic neuritis. Results of a thorough study for infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases were negative. Our patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone with almost complete improvement and he remained asymptomatic at a 12-month follow-up.
Conclusions: Bilateral optic neuritis should be added to the list of autoimmune disorders related to common variable immunodeficiency. If a patient with common variable immunodeficiency experiences loss of vision, the possibility of bilateral optic neuritis should be considered as rapid initiation of high-dose corticosteroids may improve visual recovery.