The gallbladder specimens of patients who underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones between 2003 and 2005 were evaluated for the presence of Intestinal Metaplasia. (IM) and its risk factors. IM was positive in 39% of 293 patients tested, and in the comparative analysis of 114 metaplasia positive versus 179 negative patients, a high risk was found in patients who were 60 years or older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 6.2]. Other factors with aOR greater than 1 were moderate to excessive use of chilies (1.8) and ethnic origin of North India (1.7). Screening method has yet to be devised for early detection of gallbladder cancer by identifying metaplastic lesions early in life. We believe that large geographic variation and lifestyle environmental factors associated with the development of gallbladder metaplasia and cancer mortality are concealed in our study that needs to be further explored.
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