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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2011 Sep;141(9):1626-34.
doi: 10.3945/jn.111.141028. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein During Diet- And Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein During Diet- And Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women

Andrea R Josse et al. J Nutr. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00710398.

Conflict of interest statement

Author disclosures: A. R. Josse, S. A. Atkinson, M. A. Tarnopolsky, and S. M. Phillips, no conflicts of interest.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Absolute (A,C,E) and relative-to-baseline (B,D,F) changes in body fat mass (A,B), percent body fat (C,D), and lean mass (E,F) in overweight and obese premenopausal women who underwent a 16-wk intervention of diet- and exercise-induced weight loss. Values are means ± SE, n = 90 (30/group). Means at a time without a common letter differ, P < 0.05. *Different from the preceding time point, P < 0.05.APLD, adequate protein, low dairy; APMD, adequate protein, medium dairy; HPHD, high protein, high dairy.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Relative to baseline changes in trunk fat mass measured by DXA (A) and visceral fat volume measured by MRI (B) in overweight and obese premenopausal women who underwent a 16-wk intervention of diet- and exercise-induced weight loss, and the correlation between the 2 measures (C). Values are means ± SE, n = 39. Means without a common letter differ, P < 0.05. *Different from wk 0, P < 0.05. APLD, adequate protein, low dairy; APMD, adequate protein, medium dairy; HPHD, high protein, high dairy; VAT, visceral adipose tissue.

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