Implant-related primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast is a rare clinical entity. With increasing attention being paid to this disease, most cases reported to date in the literature have demonstrated indolent clinical courses responsive to explantation, capsulectomy, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The authors describe a case of bilateral implant-related primary ALCL of the breast that proved refractory to both standard and aggressive interventions, ultimately resulting in patient death secondary to disease progression. The authors situate this case in the context of the current state of knowledge regarding implant-related primary ALCL of the breast and suggest that this entity is generally, but not universally, indolent in nature.
Clinical question/level of evidence: Risk, V.