Induction of nuclear factor-kappa B and the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat by okadaic acid, a specific inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A

New Biol. 1990 Sep;2(9):793-800.


We have used a specific phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, to examine the role of two phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, in the induction of NF-kappa B and the long terminal repeat of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-LTR). Treatment of Jurkat cells with okadaic acid induced NF-kappa B in nuclear extracts. The rate of induction by okadaic acid was delayed compared to the induction of NF-kappa B by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The induction of NF-kappa B by okadaic acid was enhanced by cycloheximide or phytohemagglutinin (PHA). In contrast to PMA, okadaic acid appeared to induce NF-kappa B independently of protein kinase C (PKC). That the NF-kappa B induced by okadaic acid was functional was demonstrated by the marked increase in CAT activity that occurred in Jurkat, BJA-B, and U251 cells that were transfected with HIV-LTR-CAT and treated with okadaic acid. The increase in CAT activity triggered by okadaic acid was dependent on the presence of the NF-kappa B sites in the long terminal repeat of HIV as assessed by deletion and mutation analysis. Similarly to its effect on the induction of NF-kappa B, PHA added together with okadaic acid resulted in a further increase in CAT activity. Somewhat surprisingly, the addition of PMA inhibited the increase in CAT activity in response to okadaic acid, which suggests that the activation of PKC may also induce inhibitory factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Ethers, Cyclic / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • NF-kappa B / biosynthesis*
  • Okadaic Acid
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Phytohemagglutinins / pharmacology
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology


  • Ethers, Cyclic
  • NF-kappa B
  • Phytohemagglutinins
  • Okadaic Acid
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate