The parathyroid hormone receptorsome and the potential for therapeutic intervention

Curr Drug Targets. 2012 Jan;13(1):116-28. doi: 10.2174/138945012798868416.

Abstract

The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) is activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), hormones that mediate mineral ion homeostasis and tissue development, respectively. These diverse actions mediated by one receptor are likely due to the formation of cell-specific receptorsome complexes with cytosolic constituents. Through the second and third intracellular loops, the PTH1R couples to several G protein subclasses, including Gs, Gq/11, Gi/o and G12/13, resulting in the activation of many pathways. The PTH1R carboxy-terminal tail directs interactions with a plethora of binding partners. The WD1 and WD7 repeats of the G protein β subunit directly bind to a novel interaction domain located near the amino-terminal end of the PTH1R carboxy-terminal tail. This Gβγ binding site likely contributes to the promiscuous G protein coupling displayed by the PTH1R. Partially overlapping this site is an EF-hand binding domain that directs interactions with calpain, a calcium-activated protease, and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium sensor. A lysine-arginine-lysine motif located on the juxtamembrane region of the carboxy-terminal tail mediates interactions with ezrin, an actin-membrane cross-linking protein. The C-terminus of the PTH1R binds to the sodium-hydrogen regulatory factors (NHERFs) via a PDZ domain-mediated interaction, an association that influences signaling and membrane anchoring. Through direct interactions with ezrin and NHERF-1, a PTH1R receptorsome complex exists on apical membranes of the proximal tubule, an assembly that directs PTH-mediated regulation of phosphate transport. Targeting the PTH1R receptorsome will likely enhance therapies directed towards the treatment of osteoporosis and enhancing the hematopoietic stem cell niche.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites / physiology
  • Endosomes / metabolism
  • Endosomes / physiology*
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity / physiology
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Osteoporosis / therapy
  • Parathyroid Glands / growth & development
  • Parathyroid Glands / metabolism
  • Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / physiology
  • Peptide Fragments / physiology
  • Protein Binding / physiology
  • Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology

Substances

  • PTH1R protein, human
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1