Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize endometrial inflammation associated with common genital tract pathogens.
Study design: The design of the study was the immunohistochemical characterization of the endometrial leukocyte subpopulations from 37 controls and 45 women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or Trichomonas vaginalis.
Results: Compared with uninfected women, endocervical infection with C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, or T vaginalis was associated with significant increases in endometrial T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Even more substantial increases in T cell, B cell, and plasma cell numbers were detected among women infected endocervically and endometrially with C trachomatis.
Conclusion: Because lower genital tract C trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae, or T vaginalis infections were associated with comparable increases in the same endometrial leukocyte subpopulations, our results suggest the underappreciated involvement of T vaginalis in upper genital tract inflammatory processes. The more robust inflammatory infiltrate associated with C trachomatis endometrial ascension may offer insight into host inflammatory responses associated with pelvic inflammatory disease development.
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